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White Papers

Use these links to view our white papers and citations to see where we have gathered information from, explore, and learn more.


References: Sequestration and Plant-Based Sequestration

California Landscape Conservation Partnership (CALCP). (n.d.). Climate Adaptation Data Catalog.

Retrieved from


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (n.d.) Ecological regions of North America [map].

Retrieved from:


Fisher, A.A. (2018). Will carbon sequestration redeem the lawn? Retrieved from


Natural and Working Lands Working Paper. (2014). Retrieved from


Romm, J. (2008). The biggest source of mistakes: C vs. CO2. Retrieved from


United States Department of the Interior. (2012). Interior releases study of carbon storage and sequestration in western ecosystems as part of national assessment. Retrieved from


Zhu, Z.(ed.), Bouchard, M., Butman, D., Hawbaker, T., Li, Z., Liu, J., … Wein, A. (2011). Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States [U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1787]. Retrieved from


Zhu, Z., Sleeter, B.M., Griffith, G.E., Stackpoole, S.M., Hawbaker, T.J., & Bergamaschi, B.A. (2012). An Assessment of carbon sequestration in ecosystems of the Western United States—Scope, methodology, and geography. Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-gas Fluxes in Ecosystems of the Western United States [U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1797]. Retrieved from


Zirkle, G., Lal, R., & Augustin, B. (2011). Modeling carbon sequestration in home lawns.


HortScience46(5), 808-814. doi:


Zirkle, G., Lal, R., Augustin, B., & Follett, R. (2012). Modeling carbon sequestration in the U.S. residential landscape. Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, 265-276. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2366-5_14

Soil Organic Carbon (S.O.C.)

Carlson, J. (n.d.) Fact sheets: How much carbon can soil store. Retrieved from


Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development. (2019). What is soil organic carbon? Retrieved from


Pluske, W., Murphy, D., & Sheppard, J. (n.d.) Fact sheets: Total organic carbon. Retrieved from

Tree Sequestration

Bjorkman, J., Thorne, J.H., Hollander, A., Roth, N.E., Boynton, R.M., de Goede, J.,… Quinn, J.F. (2015.) Biomass, carbon sequestration and avoided emission: assessing the role of urban trees in California. UC Davis: Information Center for the Environment. Retrieved from


City of San Jose. (2014). Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration calculator. Retrieved from


Climate Change Resource Center (CRCC). (n.d.). CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator (CTCC). Retrieved from


Energy Information Administration. (1998). Method for calculating carbon sequestration by trees in urban and suburban settings. Retrieved from


Nakano Associate. (2015). Measuring carbon sequestration of urban trees. Retrieved from


Nowak, D.J., Greenfield, E.J., Hoehn, R.E., & Lapoint, E. (2013). Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States. Enviornmental Pollution178. Retrieved from


Scharenbroch, B.C. (2012) Urban trees for carbon sequestration. In: Lal, R. & Augustin, B. (Eds.), Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, 121-138. Dordrecht: Springer. doi:


Scott, T. (n.d.). Carbon sequestration in oak woodlands [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Emerging Technologies

Rathi, A. (2017). The world’s first “negative emissions” plant has begun operation—turning carbon dioxide into stone. Retrieved from

Emissions Carbon Footprints- General
Equipment Emissions
Hardscape Emissions

Block Layer. (n.d.). Calculate rebar spacing, layout and weight in a concrete slab. Retrieved from


Build Carbon Neutral. (2007). Construction carbon calculator. Retrieved from


Bulduc, L. P. (2018). Reducing emissions with CO² cured-concrete. Ecohome. Retrieved from


Calkins, M. (2017). Concrete minus carbon. Landscape Architecture Magazine. Retrieved from


Inch Calculator. (n.d.). Lumber and hardwood weight calculator. Retrieved from


Mineral Products Association (MPA). (n.d.). Carbon management. Retrieved from


Mitchell, C. J. (2012). Aggregate carbon demand: The hunt for low-carbon aggregate. In E. Hunger & G. Walton Eds.) Proceedings of the 16th Extractive Industry Geology Conference (pp. 93-99). EIG Conferences, Ltd. Retrieved from


O’Connor, K., Pocock, C., Barthelmeh, M., & Davis, S. (2011). Carbon and environmental profiling of hard landscape materials (Research Report No. 22). Centre for Land, Environment and People, Lincoln University. Retrieved from;sequence=1


Oly-Ola Edgings, Inc. (n.d.). Bric-EdgTM flexible & rigid 2 inch high paver restraint. Retrieved from


Stone Specialist. (2010). Ecology: Stone is the greenest building material. Retrieved from


TW Metals. (n.d.). Metal weight calculator. Retrieved from


Upstate Steel. (n.d.). Cold finished flats. Retrieved from Wheeler

Zamaroni. (n.d.). Calculate materials. Retrieved from Whittington Steel. (n.d.). Reference guides: Flats. Retrieved from

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Emissions
Soil Organic Carbon
Tree and Tree Care Carbon Footprints

Shea, E. (2017). Shades of green: The hidden carbon cost of tree planting and care. Retrieved from

Professionals Consulted

Steve Berlin- Berlin Masonry Inc.

White Papers

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